Despite the potential for exosomes to be used as a therapeutic agent there have been very few clinical studies conducted to date due to the absence of a process for the isolation and purification of proprietary clinical grade exosomes at scale. The Company believes that its LEAP Technology allows it to address this opportunity.
Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles ranging from 30–400 nanometre in size and facilitate a range of important cellular functions. They are membranous bilayer lipid vesicles secreted by a variety of cell types (including stem cells and platelets) into the blood circulation and other bodily fluids.
Exosomes are effective communication vehicles that transfer bioactive proteins and genetic material (DNA and RNA) between cells to alter the function of the targeted cells, including complex regenerative and healing programs within the body.
Cells produce exosomes naturally. Exosomes are commonly found in blood, placenta, urine and milk among other bio fluids.
Exosomes contribute to functions including tissue repair, neural communication and immune modulation. Another attribute that makes exosomes powerful are the large quantity found within living systems - it is estimated that there are 1000 times more exosomes than stem cells within the human body.
Stem cell exosomes are versatile in that they can alter the function of the targeted cells that can be near (paracrine like synapses) or far (endocrine) systemically via the blood.
Stem cell exosomes have the potential to be used in a wide range of applications, including as therapeutics, diagnostic tools, and research products. There is also the potential to incorporate exosomes into cosmeceuticals (cosmetic products that have or claim to have medicinal properties) or nutraceuticals (functional foods).